Medusa Mining is unlocked upon conquering Dagama in Andromeda Heart. It costs 2 Trillion RP or 5 thousand TP to unlock, and has only one level.
Dagama has nothing else special except unlocking this research.
It allows building the Medusa Miner and the Andromeda Cargo. The Andromeda Cargo costs 100x as much as the Orion Cargo plus 1,000 engines, carries a bit over 100x as much, and has a speed of 2 instead of 1.5